Citizenship in Action? A Case Study of Polish Migrant Women Moving between Poland and the UK
Migration from the new European Union (EU) Member States to the United Kingdom (UK) has been identified as one of the most significant social phenomena of recent times and Accession 8 (A8) migration to the UK has been studied extensively particularly since 2004. Even though gendered studies of migration are now attaining recognition, there is limited literature in relation to Polish migrant women. What is more, there is now much evidence to support the view that migrant women constitute a large proportion of international migrants. In fact, when considering migration within the European context, migrant women now outnumber their male counterparts.
Drawing on a review of secondary literature and preliminary findings from new fieldwork research undertaken in Poland and the UK in 2012, this paper explores how Polish migrant women exercise their rights as EU citizens to better their own and their familiesâ€™ wellbeing. As the consequence of their newly acquired rights as EU citizens, Polish migrant women appear to be active agents who make use of the resources and opportunities that migration offers. It is concluded that migration within the EU presents positive opportunities for Polish migrant women to actively engage with and exercise national and EU citizenship rights.
Accession Monitoring: Report May 2004 â€“ March 2009, United Kingdom Border Agency (UKBA), http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100422120657/http:/www.ukba.homeoffice.gov.uk/sitecontent/documents/aboutus/reports/accession_monitoring_report/ [Access date: 19.08.2013].
Ackers L., Citizenship, Gender and Dependence in the European Union: Women and Internal Migration, â€œSocial Politicsâ€ 1996, No. 3.
Ackers L., Citizenship, Migration and the Valuation of Care in the European Union, â€œJournal of Ethnic and Migration Studiesâ€ 2004, No. 30.
Ackers L., Shifting Spaces. Women, citizenship and migration within the European Union, Bristol 1998.
Ackers L., Stalford H., A Community for Children? Children, Citizenship and Internal Migration in the EU, Hampshire 2004.
Aristotle, Politics, Oxford 1948.
Blaikie N., Approaches to Social Enquiry, Cambridge 2007.
Braun V., Clarke V., Using Thematic Analysis in Psychology, â€œQualitative Research in Psychologyâ€ 2003, No. 3.
Castles S., Miller M., The Age of Migration. International Population Movements in the Modern World, Basingstoke 2009.
Castles S., Van Hear N., Developing DfIDâ€™s Policy Approach to Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons, COMPAS, http://www.compas.ox.ac.uk/publications/reports-and-other-publications/dfid-approach-to-refugees/ [Access date: 08.08.13].
Cook J., Dwyer P., Waite L., Accession 8 Migration and the Proactive and Defensive Engagement of Social Citizenship, â€œJournal of Social Policyâ€ 2012, No. 41.
Cook J., Dwyer P., Waite L., The Experiences of Accession 8 Migrants in England: Motivations, Work and Agency, â€œInternational Migrationâ€ 2011, No. 49.
Currie S., Migration, Work and Citizenship in the Enlarged European Union, Surrey 2008.
Drinkwater S., Eade J., Garapich M., Poles Apart? EU Enlargement and the Labour Market Outcomes of Immigrants in the UK, IZA Discussion Paper No. 2410, Bonn 2006.
Dwyer P., Understanding Social Citizenship. Themes and Perspectives for Policy and Practice, Bristol 2010.
Dwyer P., Welfare Rights and Responsibilities: Contesting Social Citizenship, Bristol 2000.
Engle L.B., The World in Motion. Short Essays on Migration and Gender, International Organisation for Migration (IOM), Switzerland 2004.
Faulks K., Citizenship in Modern Britain, Edinburgh 1998.
Favell A., The New Face of East-West Migration in Europe, â€œJournal of Ethnic and Migration Studiesâ€ 2008, No. 34.
Finch, J. Feminist Research and Social Policy [in:] Womenâ€™s Issues in Social Policy, M. Maclean, D. Groves (eds.), London 1991.
Forder A., Caslin T., Ponton G., Walklate S., Theories of Welfare, London 1984.
Freeman G.P., Migration and the Political Economy of the Welfare State [in:] The Politics of Migration, R. Cohen, Z. Layton-Henry (eds.), Cheltenham 1986.
Geddes A., Immigration and European Integration. Beyond Fortress Europe? , Manchester 2008.
Grabowska-LusiÅ„ska I., OkÃ³lski M., Migracja z Polski po 1 Maja 2004 r.: jej intensywnoÅ›Ä‡ i kierunki geograficzne oraz alokacja migrantÃ³w na rynkach pracy krajÃ³w Unii Europejskiej [Emigration from Poland Post 2004: Its Intensity, Geographical Spread and Distribution of Migrants in the Labour Markets of the European Union Countries], Centre of Migration Research, â€œCMR Working Paperâ€ Warsaw 2008, No. 33/9.
Hunt L., Steele A., Condie J., Migrant Workers in Rochdale and Oldham, Salford 2008.
Index Mundi, ZÅ‚oty to Pound Sterling Exchange rate. http://www.indexmundi.com/xrates/graph.aspx?c1=PLN&c2=GBP&days=2826&lastday=20080929 [Access date: 07.05.12].
Kofman E., Gendered Global Migrations: Diversity and Stratification, â€œInternational Feminist Journal of Politicsâ€ 2004, No. 6.
Lewis G., Citizenship [in:] Imagining Welfare Futures, G. Hughes (ed.), Oxon 1998.
Lister R., Citizenship and Gender [in:] Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology, K. Nash, A. Scott (eds.), forthcoming.
Lister R., Citizenship: Feminist Perspectives, New York 2003.
Mason J., Qualitative Researching, London 2002.
Morokvasic M., â€˜Settled in Mobilityâ€™: Engendering Post-Wall Migration in Europe, â€œFeminist Reviewâ€ 2004, No. 77.
Morokvasic M., Women in Migration: Beyond the Reductionist Outlook [in:] One Way Ticket: Migration and Female Labour, A. Phizacklea (ed.), London 1983.
Morris L., Legitimate Membership of the Welfare Community [in:] Welfare: Needs, Rights and Risks, M. Langan (ed.), London 1998.
Pascall G., Lewis J., Emerging Gender Regimes and Policies for Gender Equality in a Wider Europe, â€œJournal of Social Policyâ€ 2004, No. 33.
Pessar R., Mahler S.J., Transnational Migration: Bringing Gender in, â€œInternational Migration Reviewâ€ 2003, No. 37.
Pollard N., Latorre M., Sriskandarajah D., Floodgates or Turnstiles? Post-EU Enlargement Migration Flows to (and from) the UK, London 2008.
Regional Profiles â€“ Population and Migration â€“ North West, Office for National Statistics (ONS), http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/regional-trends/region-and-country-profi les/population-and-migration/population-and-migration---north-west.html [Access date: 25.07.12].
Ritchie J., Lewis J., Elam G., Designing and Selecting Samples [in:] Qualitative Research Practice, J. Ritchie, J. Lewis (eds.), London 2003.
Scullion L., Pemberton S., Exploring Migrant Workers Motivations for Migration and Their Perceived Contributions to the UK: A case study of Liverpool, Salford 2010.
Vertovec S., Superdiversity and Its Implications, â€œEthnic and Racial Studiesâ€ 2007, No. 30.
Vogel U., Is Citizenship Gender-Specific? [in:] The Frontiers of Citizenship, U. Vogel, M. Moran (eds.), London 1991.
Zlotnik H., The Global Dimensions of Female Migration, Migration Information Source, http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=109 [Access date: 09.11.11].
- There are currently no refbacks.